When developing a WEB application, you can use one of the most popular technologies, which include Java Servlets, Java Server Page, PHP, ASP.NET, Node.js.
Web applications implement business logic on the server side and generate code for the client. Those. the client, as a rule, is thin, without any serious information processing resources on the server. Also, all these applications have the same architecture of interaction between the server and the client and the general communication protocol – HTTP.
Applications work in the cloud in three main stages:
• Client request. The browser (client) initiates a request to the server side of the WEB application.
• Processing the request by the server. After receiving the request, the application server processes the requested information.
• If a static resource such as an HTML page, picture, document is requested, then this information is formatted according to the HTTP protocol and transmitted to the client as a response.
• If a dynamic resource is required, the request is forwarded for processing to the corresponding server application (“container” of the WEB application), where further processing of the request parameters takes place.
• Reply to the client. After processing the request and generating a response, the data is transmitted to the browser (client) using the HTTP protocol. The response contains data (usually in the form of HTML code, sometimes binary data), as well as additional parameters in the HTTP response header.
This approach to application development creates certain difficulties, the main one of which is the absence of the state of the WEB application (the so-called stateless programming). This means that the application works exclusively in the request-response mode, without data on the user’s previous steps or any other permanent information. To solve this problem, various WEB technologies use the concept of a user session, which allows you to store certain information on the server during a user’s session.
However, the complexity of developing a WEB application is not limited only to the user’s session. To speed up the development of serious WEB applications, various additional frameworks are used. Thus, the more opportunities the platform provides, the faster and more efficiently development can be carried out.
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Choice of technology
Which useful source to choose for developing a WEB application depends entirely on the project manager (designer, developer). You can, of course, master a new, currently most fashionable technology, to expand your horizons and develop another application in it. This is especially true if good money is being paid for it all. But after that, it takes a long time to become a good specialist in this field.
For various platforms for creating WEB applications, it is necessary to distinguish two main existing approaches to the development of the server side:
1 Formation of the code in the form of text of a certain format.
2 Embedding code in specific templates.
The first approach provides the greatest opportunity to improve performance. It provides for the transfer of all data about the request directly to the server, which can both form a response with a page for the user, and open a stream of binary data for transmission, for example, to transfer an image. However, with this approach, all data for transmission is generated programmatically, which slows down the development of simple pages. Examples of this approach are CGI technologies, Java Servlets.
The second approach uses specially designed page templates, which allows you to insert sections of code into them. This approach is especially effective when creating WEB applications, the main information in which is static, and dynamic information can be generated by simple program constructions. When developing large systems, this option complicates the interaction between components and makes it difficult to implement a complex architecture. It is also less efficient in terms of performance and limits the ability to implement complex pages. Examples of this approach are the currently most popular technologies PHP, ASP, JSP.
The most important requirements put forward when creating complex Web systems, the presence of which makes the system attractive for use:
• platform independence;
• implementation language;
• performance, scalability;
• opportunities for expansion and integration;
• ease of use, availability of development tools;
• availability of required software libraries;
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